Vallisneria, description of the plant, agricultural planting and care methods in the aquarium at home, cultivation rules, possible difficulties in cultivation and ways to solve them, curious comments, species, and varieties.
Vallisneria belongs to the family Hydrocharitaceae. Representatives of this family include those better known to the population, such as the watercolor (Hydrocharis morses-range) and the common Telorez (Stratiotes aloides), as well as the Canadian Elodea (Elodea canadensis). Among lovers of aquatic plants is the most popular species Vallisneria spiralis. Although according to information from The Plant List database, there are 14 species in the genus of scientists.
Indigenous areas of the natural distribution of Vallisneria cover tropical and subtropical regions of the western and eastern hemispheres, but some species have taken root in areas with moderate weather conditions. If we talk about Russian countries, then only one species mentioned above grows in the wild along the Don, Volga, Far East, and Ciscaucasia.
- Family name- Vodokrasovye
- Growth period-
- Vegetation form- Herbaceous
- Gender Daughter rosette- rarely with seeds
- Timing of transplantation into the aquarium soil- All year round
- Landing rules- At a distance of 5-10 cm from each other
- Preparation- Nourishing, loose, clayey
- Content temperature- degrees 20–28
- Water acidity, pH- 6-7.5 (neutral)
- Light level– 5 W / L
- Special care rules- Regular leaf cutting
- Height options– 5-2 m
- Type of flowering or flowering- Unique flowers or hemispherical flowering
- Color of flowers- Pale green, whitish
- Type of fruit- Seed capsules
- Decorative period- The whole year
- Application- The aquarium plant serves to purify water
- USDA area- 5–9
The genus got its name thanks to the famous flora of Karl Linné (1707-1787), who described his representatives in 1753 and decided to immortalize the name of the Italian botanist Antonio Vallisneri (1661-1730). People can hear what the plant is called table grass or Wallis.
The genus Vallisneria combines perennial plants that grow submerged in aquatic environments (hydrolyses). That is, plants are attached to the surface of the soil with lengths of thin and creeping rhizomes (their length reaches about 7-10 cm), and only the lower parts of this representative of the flora are below the surface of the water. At the roots, the color is milky yellow and they are quite flexible, not susceptible to injury. Vallisneria grows in the wild in rivers or lakes. Stems with leafy plates collected in basic rosettes are attached to the soil with long shoots (mustache-like layer), located a short distance from the mother specimen. The color of the leaves is bright or dark green or it is a reddish tone, they grow completely submerged in water. The shape of the leaves can be linear or elliptical; in rare cases, at the base, they get a heart-shaped shape.
The stem of Vallisneria sometimes grows branched and rather mature. The leaves on it are then arranged in the usual order and seldom accumulate in circles. The petioles have axillary scales. It is noteworthy that different types of Wallis have leaves of different sizes, and in some, they even have a spiral rotation. A vein accumulation is present on the surface of the leaves and the veins lie parallel to each other along the length of the leaf.
Vallisneria is characterized by leaves that reach meters in length, but in general, their variables when grown in an aquarium range from 50 to 70 cm, and only in some specimens do they reach 1-2 meters. In most species in the genus, the tops of the leaves reach the edge of the water and grow to creep along with it, evolving due to the current. It is this characteristic that is a clear characteristic of Vallisneria, as opposed to the arrow (Sagittaria). This is because the outline of the leaves on the micro heads is quite similar to these hydrolyzers, but its leaves will never creep along the water surface.
Vallisneria leaves are invaluable when in a pond or aquarium, as they help to purify the water and saturate it with oxygen.
Table grass is twofold, that is, some specimens have male flowers and others with female flowers. The size of the flowers can be small and they are not particularly decorative, or the flowers on the stems open large, with clearly distinguishable flowering. They are mainly located, towering over the water. Vallisneria flowers can form both on their own, so from them, a semi-flowering flower is collected, covered with a pair of concrete. These leaves form a monocotyledonous veil and more than one flowering can sprout from each leaf axis than a few. The perianth is composed of rings (outer and inner), which take on a whitish flower-colored flower.
Vallisneria often blooms in aquarium conditions and resembles a thin micro-thread. Its length reaches 60-70 cm. Such a “thread” rises to the surface of the water and lies there, on the surface of the water, where the buds bloom. The flower size can range from 3-5 mm. The petals in them are green. Flowering is rather short, and then the inflorescence returns after pollination to the bottom. Pollination takes place with water; it is in a hydrophobic way.
After pollination, the flowering stem of Vallisneria begins to spin like a spiral and this is what allows it to pull pollinated flowers below the surface of the water, where the fruit matures. The pollination process is direct contact of female flowers females that are released from the plant and float in the water with stamps of floating male flowers. Wallis fruits are represented by seed capsules (capsules) filled with a number of small seeds.
In addition to such seed reproduction, Vallisneria can reproduce with vegetation. This is because shoots that grow creeping over the surface of the soil in the lagoon or buried in it develop buds. After a certain period of time, very small daughter hydrated legs begin to grow out of them. After such young plants take root in the ground, they throw out layers, where new specimens of grass tape are formed. Thanks to this method of reproduction, the bottom of rivers and lakes, where Vallisneria is located, are quickly covered with dense thick meadows, where the shoots of plants are very closely connected to each other.
In our area, it will not be easy to grow this plant in reservoirs, but water players appreciate the properties of this hydrolyzer as they deserved it, as the plant is easy to care for and will decorate any aquarium.
Agricultural technology for planting and caring for Vallisneria in an aquarium at home
- The location for the placement of weeds is best picked up behind the aquarium, in the middle or somewhere in the corner. So that the leaves can develop freely but not disturb other inhabitants of plant and animal life. Since, thanks to deciduous plants, waterfalls of rich emerald blue color are formed, which in fact respond to every fluctuation of water, such a plant is desirable for a long time. In addition, the leaves of Vallisneria serve as food for several fish species and its shoots in the aquarium are also of great benefit. Through them, oxygen is released, which saturates the aquatic environment, as well as debris or suspension that settles on the surface of the leaf and cleans the aquarium. Shoots also serve to form the soil. Scientists have proven that this representative of the aquatic flora can pick up harmful pollutants from its environment.
- Light level with aquarium content in Vallisneria, should be 0.5 W / l, but both natural and artificial are suitable. If a species such as the giant (Vallisneria gigantean) is cultivated, it is recommended to provide side lighting, as the leaves are large and can shade each other. The length of daylight hours recommended when storing Wallis in the aquarium should be at least 8-16 hours (although this must be chosen on its own). If this rule is broken, the plant will begin to stretch strongly and its leaves will turn yellow.
- Water temperature when growing spectacular hydrolysis in an aquarium, it should not go beyond 20-28 degrees. If the thermometer drops below 18 degrees, this can cause Vallisneria death.
- Water variables. The pH at which the plant becomes comfortable is pH 6-7.5, that is, water is desirable to be neutral or slightly acidic, but always soft. The last condition concerns stiffness, it is important that its value should not exceed dH up to 15 C, and for some species, not more than 8.
- Vallisneria lending. Once the soil is laid at the bottom of the aquarium and it settles, you can start planting algae, too much watering is not necessary for that. The root collar must be on the surface of the substrate.
- Preparation, when Vallisneria is grown in an aquarium, is recommended to choose nutritiously. If a new soil mixture is used, clay should be added for enrichment. Later, such impurities will not be needed, as their own salty layer has already accumulated in the soil. The composition of the substrate does not play a role in the maintenance of the grass table, but experienced water players advise adding pebbles of any fracture and facing to it. In order for the Vallisneria root system to develop properly, the soil layer at the bottom of the aquarium is poured by 4-7 cm.
- Fertilizers when they grow Wallis, they are usually not used in addition, only in cases where the plant itself shows the condition of the leaves on the deficiency of certain substances. You can find out about this in the section “Possible difficulties with the cultivation of Vallisneria and ways to solve them.” But in general, this hydrolysis does not tolerate the presence of minerals well. So, for example, if the sodium ions content of the water is exceeded, then this growth is disrupted by this representation of the aquatic flora. Therefore, it is recommended to add salt and soda to water containing Vallisneria with great caution. If the soil mixture was chosen correctly when cultivating tape, then it is not possible to use the top cover at all. When storing Vallisneria in an aquarium, it is recommended to carefully monitor the presence of iron oxide rust and iron salts in the water. If this rule is broken, the algae will surely die. It is noticed that if the nutrients of Vallisneria are not enough, then its development slows down and the leaf begins to rot from the edge. To prevent such a problem, it is necessary to use a regular top dressing that is released in the form of glue or tablets. You can also put balls of blue pharmacy clay under the root. It is not necessary to additionally feed the aqueous medium with carbon dioxide.
- General advice for growing Vallisneria. The plant usually reacts to the fact that there are no frequent changes in the water in the aquarium and its growth does not depend in any way on whether the old liquid or the new one is poured into the container. As the shrub of grass grows rapidly, their leaf mass increases rapidly, forming a real thick layer from them. To help such plants absorb the entire thickness of the water surface provided to them, it is recommended to carry out regular weeding and thinning. To control the growth of Wallis leaves, they are cut regularly, but it is not possible to shorten a separate leaf as it dies immediately. All leaves must be removed at the place where the young specimen is planted.
See also tips for storing alternant eras in a tub or home.
Breeding rules of Vallisneria
In order to carry out an independent propagation of grass tape, the vegetation method is used – by rooting layers, which over time are formed on a shoot that has a creeping shape. In rare cases, cultivation takes place with seeds.
If the growing conditions are favorable, only one specimen of Vallisneria can become a source of fifty shrubs. At the same time, due to vegetation reproduction in aquariums, there are usually representatives of only one sex.
A layer of tapestry becomes the source of the daughter of plants and when 3-4 leaves and a leaf of root shoots appear on them, this is a sign that the children are ready to understand. With the help of sharp and disinfected scissors, the children are carefully separated from the mother plant and planted in a separate container or in the same aquarium, leaving 5-10 cm between the mother sample and the “eating grass” of the young plant.
Do not break the mustache with the children from the mother Vallisneria, otherwise, you can pull all the plantings out of the soil.
Although in nature plants multiply by seeds, when grown in an aquarium this process becomes almost impossible. This is because even though there are specimens of female and male flowers in the same aquarium, their flowering time can be very different and pollination will not take place. Only when a few plants are stored in one container does it increase the chances of them flowering at the same time. If such a process took place in an aquarium at home, then the mature seed pods will sink to the bottom and young walls will develop from them.
Possible difficulties in cultivating Vallisneria and ways to solve them
Despite the fact that this water-repellent plant does not require much care at all, if maintenance rules are broken, it can suffer from diseases where the ornamentation of the leaves suffers very much, and they turn yellow. If no action is taken, Vallisneria will surely perish. For treatment, it is first recommended to use tweezers to remove all parts of the tape that affect the disease, and regular cleaning of the aquarium also prevents disease. Basically, problems arise with growing Wallis due to the lack of some chemical elements or lighting levels.
Among the problems that arise with the cultivation of Vallisneria are:
- Low brightness, which leads to the loss of a leaf, in addition, the plant, sheds leaves that grow in the lower part. It is important to use additional lighting to solve the problem by using a special lamp.
- Low-temperature indicator promotes “freezing” of leaves and the death of Vallisneria.
- When you notice that the leaves have taken on a yellow tinge and become “glassy”, this indicates a lack of iron in the water. Therefore, it is recommended to add 0.1 mg / l of ferrous sulfate to the water once a week.
- If there is too much iron in the water, the leaves will still turn yellow, but veins of green color will be visible on their surface. To solve this problem, dissolving water and manganese poured into the aquarium, but in very small amounts, will help.
- When the edges of the leaf blades turn yellow, this is a sign of a lack of calcium in Vallisneria. To improve this content, they take a few pieces of shells, disinfect them thoroughly and immerse them in the bottom of the aquarium.
- Excessive leaf death in this plant causes a lack of nitrogen in the water, as well as the color of the edge of the leaves yellow. To solve the problem, it is recommended to lower the temperature in the aquarium by 2-3 units.
- Coating the sheet with lime indicates an insufficient amount of carbon dioxide. Then some residents (fish or snails) in the aquarium should be introduced.
- The reddish color of the leaves is a sign of insufficient sulfur. To solve this problem, it is necessary to put the sick Vallisneria in a container where sulfur particles dissolve in the water.
- When the surface of the leaves is covered with spots of yellow or red color, we can talk about the lack of potassium. Increasing the amount of this substance in the water is accomplished by applying mineral fertilizers when changing the water in the aquarium, for example by using nitro phosphate dissolved in water at 2 grams per 100 liters. In this case, the drug should be used until the potassium level is filled and signs of deficiency disappear.
- If the water ceases to be sufficiently saturated with phosphorus, the leaves of Vallisneria acquire a reddish tinge, and in young specimens darken and curl. To increase the concentration of this substance in water, it is recommended to use phosphorus fertilizers.
- The black tops on the leaves of the wall indicate a lack of material such as boron. The problem is solved by introducing the drug on the basis that 0.5 mg should fall on 1 liter of fluid.
- In the case when the plates on Vallisneria shine a lot and then start to die, this indicates a lack of copper. To improve its concentration in water, it is recommended to pour in a solution based on copper sulfate, diluted in a ratio of 0.2 mg per liter. As soon as these signs disappear, the remedy is no longer used, as an excess of copper will result in the death of the inhabitants of the aquarium and other aquatic flora.
If it is decided to grow Vallisneria in an aquarium, then it is worth knowing the exact characteristics of the inhabitants (the fish) that live in it, as some of them are characterized by undermining the soil, which will invariably have a negative effect on these algae and lead to her death.
Vallisneria helix is an aggressive invader due to its efficient distribution, vegetation growth, high biomass production, and aquarium popularity. Acts as an “undesirable organism” in New Zealand. Included in the National Convention on the Prohibition of Sales, Distribution, and Commercial Distribution. Since 2013, Vallisneria spiralis has been registered as a natural foreign plant in Iceland, where it has been registered in geothermal ponds.
Types and varieties of Vallisneria
Vallisneria Americana (Vallisneria Americana)
Has underwater growth and can be used as feed for various wildlife, for example, the American redhead (Aythya valisineria). In this case, animals use all parts of the plant. Long leaves and stems are usually weak, which contributes to their consumption. Despite its unique name, the species is not only found in American countries, under natural conditions it grows in Iraq, China, Japan, Korea, India, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Australia, Canada and many other regions with tropical and subtropical climates. In areas with a natural distribution, the plant is called wild celery, water celery or table grass. Vallisneria Americana is grown for aquariums, as it is sold as a background plant.
Sometimes the tops of the leaves of Vallisneria American float on the surface of the water. Grass leaves form clusters from the roots. They are about 2.54 cm wide and can be 60-70 cm long, although the width and length can be very different. They have distinct, raised veins with several transverse veins. The leaves have rounded tips. Table grass produces male and female flowers. Small white female flowers are more visible. Unique male flowers grow on very long stems. Ripe flowers reach the surface of the water. The banana grass fruit is a banana-shaped capsule with many tiny seeds.
Varieties such as Natans come from Asia and are hardy plant that is suitable for beginner amateurs. It is characterized by thin, narrow leaves that reach 50–100 cm in length and 1 cm in width so that it does not overshadow other plantings in the aquarium. Reproduces easily by using multiple shots.
Vallisneria spiralis (Vallisneria spiralis)
the most popular species in the genus. Also known as direct Vallisneria, eating grass or eelgrass, it is a common aquarium plant that prefers good light and nutritious substrate. In nature, it can be found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. It is characterized by narrow, linear leaves that vary in color from pale green to reddish, reaching a length of 1 m (usually they are much shorter, only 50–70 cm) and about 1, 2–1, 9 cm wide. put together from the leaves… At the top, the edge gets a nice sieve. The top of the disk is blunt.
Vallisneria is a cloned spiral with flowers on long spiral stalks that detach from the bush and float on the surface of the water. Female (staminate flowers) are formed on short stalks and are formed in bundle-shaped inflorescences. During the flowering period, they separate from the mother and float on the surface of a lagoon or aquarium. There they approach the pistil flowers that promote pollination. Male flowers (pistil late) grow on their own; the crown rather elongated footprints, are characterized by a distorted spiral shape.
Vallisneria seeds wrapped in an aquarium usually do not germinate. Instead, it is usually spread by whiskers, which can lead to the formation of dense thick layers.
One species of this plant has been described: Vallisneria spiralis forms torticollis, which has also been upgraded to a species level by some taxonomists called Vallisneria fortissimo … The shape has densely curled leaves. Along with this feature, many other product names have been developed for small varieties in brands. Their typological position is unclear.
Vallisneria risi (Vallisneria gigantea)
In most aquariums, leaves grow so long that they float to the surface. They are 50–150 cm long and 2–4 cm wide. Thus, the plant needs to be pruned to stop it and provide more light for other vegetation growing under it. The leaves are hard and strong, so they are not eaten by herbivorous fish. The leaves are painted in a dark green color combination. The leaves are collected in a bundle and form a continuous green blanket that covers the surface of the water. The top of the leaves is thick; closer to it, the edge will be finely torn. Natural distribution occurs in Southeast Asian regions.
In an aquarium, it is recommended to plant Vallisneria gigantea at the back of the aquarium. Suitable for large aquariums with large fish. The growth rate is quite significant (almost 1 cm per day), so it is recommended to use a clipper when growing in an aquarium. Rather demanding and grows well when iron-rich fertilizers are placed in the water.
Vallisneria Tiger (Vallisneria Tiger)
acts as the most magnificent variant of the spiral Vallisneria. The difference is the pattern of the small black streaks that adorn the surface of the leaves, which served as a special name. When grown in an aquarium, it can form a thick green. The leaves are narrow and oblong, painted in rich green color. Plant height can approach 1 m.